Grooving operation on lathe machine

This new single-point trepanning tooling strategy can produce both symmetrical and asymmetrical face grooves, too, and perform fly cutting. Groove diameters are concentric to spindle rotation and not subject to error due to table movement. Derek Korn.

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Plan to meet up with their team or get registered here! Until recently, shops had two options to machine circular grooves in the face of a part.

One is to spin a part in a turning center and feed in a static face-grooving tool. The other is to use a machine tool to circle-interpolate using an end mill. Shops typically go with the latter option when the part cannot be chucked in a turning center, has a geometry that includes bosses or features impeding tool access, or would create an out-of-balance condition when spun.

However, tool breakage and long cycle times can be an issue, especially when using small-diameter end mills. This tool enables a range of groove diameters — with a symmetrical profile or not — to be created. King says compared to end milling, this tool offers advantages such as better groove concentricity and surface finish. The Mill A Groove can also be used to perform face milling as a single-point, fly-cutting operation.

This can be advantageous for applications in which minimal machining witness marks are desirable. For example, using a 1-inch end mill to face a surface wider than that will leave behind multiple 1-inch rows of witness marks.

Custom insert profiles can be created based on application requirements. You know how to machine metals, but what about plastic machining? More specifically, glass-fiber-reinforced plastic? This machine shop has it figured out.

Creating threaded holes in titanium alloys calls for proper techniques based on an understanding of both the properties of these materials and the peculiarities of the tapping process. Connect at. Digital Manufacturing Comes of Age. A Practical Guide To Presetters Tool measurement devices help shops save time, control runout and improve tool management. Tips for Tapping Titanium Alloys Creating threaded holes in titanium alloys calls for proper techniques based on an understanding of both the properties of these materials and the peculiarities of the tapping process.

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Access the Full Modern Archive. Find a Manufacturing Supplier or Service.In this article, you will learn about what are the different types of lathe machine operations performed on the lathe machine. Lathe machine performs the different operations such as turning, facing, taper turning, knurling, grooving, parting off, thread cutting, reaming etc. To perform different lathe machine operations on a lathe, the workpiece may be supported and driven by any one of the following methods:.

The lathe machine operations are classified into three main categories and are as follows. Following are the Lathe machine operations done either by holding the workpiece between centres or by a chuck:.

Lathe machine operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate are:. It is the most common type of operation in all lathe machine operations. Turning is the operation of removing the excess material from the workpiece to produce a cylindrical surface to the desired length. The job held between the centre or a chuck and rotating at a required speed.

The tool moves in a longitudinal direction to give the feed towards the headstock with proper depth of cut. The surface finish is very good. The workpiece is held on the chuck and it is made to rotate about the axis, and the tool is fed parallel to the lathe axis. The straight turning produces a cylindrical surface by removing excess metal from the workpiece. It is the process of removal of excess material from the workpiece in minimum time by applying high rate feed and heavy depth of cut.

When a workpiece has different diameters and is to be turned, the surface forming steps from one diameter to the other is called the shoulder, and machining this part of the workpiece is called shoulder turning. When a cylindrical surface two separate axis of rotation, with the first axis, is offset to the other axis then such a workpiece is machined by the operation called eccentric turning. Here three sets of centre holes are drilled. The amount of taper in the workpiece is usually specified on the basis of the difference in diameter of the taper to its length.

In the case of a lathe, the taper on a given workpiece is obtained by tuning the job and feeding the tool at an angle to produce a gradual increase or decrease in the diameter of the workpiece. Here the taper length obtain is equal to the width of the form tool.

To obtain the required size of the taper the form tool is fed slowly straight into the workpiece by operating the cross slide perpendicular to the lathe axis. This is the simplest method of taper turning. It is limited to obtain small taper length such as chamfering the side of the workpiece.The dynamics of chip formation and evacuation make grooving in turning operations unique in almost every way.

Innovative insert designs and coatings can improve your grooving operation, but to be completely successful, there are some other things you should know. Plan to meet up with their team or get registered here! It is important to understand the three main groove types: OD grooves, ID grooves and face grooves. Each has specific requirements in terms of applying the cutting tool to the work piece. OD grooving is generally the easiest, as gravity and coolant help with chip removal.

Also, because the groove is visible to the operator, quality control checks are direct and relatively easy.

Basic Lathe Operations | Lathe operation Explained

However, potential obstructions in the workpiece design or workholding must be avoided. OD groove tools generally run best when the cutting tip is held slightly below center line.

grooving operation on lathe machine

ID grooving is similar to OD grooving, except that applying coolant and evacuating chips are more challenging. Here, best performance is achieved when the tool is run slightly above center line. For successful face grooving, tools must be able to move in an axial direction and a clearance radius on the tool must match the radius being cut.

Face grooving tools run best when held slightly above center line. Machine design and condition are also fundamental considerations in any successful grooving operation. Some key machine characteristics required for success are: sufficient horsepower to run the tool at the correct speed range without stalling or shuddering; sufficient rigidity to perform demanding cuts without chatter; ample coolant pressure and flow to remove chips; and high accuracy.

Additionally, proper machine alignment is critical to keeping grooves properly shaped and sized. Familiarity with material properties such as tensile strength, work hardening characteristics and ductility are critical to understanding how the workpiece will respond to the cutting tool. Different materials require different combinations of speeds, feeds and cutting tool properties.

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Materials may also require special geometry for chip control or coatings to extend tool life. Proper selection and application of the cutting tool will determine cost effectiveness. Grooving tools can generate workpiece geometry in two way: creating the entire groove form in a single plunge or using a series of plunges to rough the groove form to final size. After choosing a tool geometry, consider applying coatings that can improve chip evacuation.

Thinbit offers specialized tools for applications that call for cutting the entire groove form in a single plunge. Because the tools use inserts, which are available in 0. These custom geometries can simplify programming and allow users to run complicated parts on relatively simple machines. Specialized tools can also help hold form tolerances and decrease cycle times. After roughing, users can finish the groove and add features such as radii and chamfers.

Form tools should be considered for high volume for high-volume workpieces. By generating all or most of the geometry in a single plunge, form tools can free up tool positions and reduce cycle times.Lathe Machine is a Production Machine tool. The Lathe was invented by Jacques de Vaucanson around 1. The Lathe Machine is an ancient tool. At the very early stage this machine was developed around BC at that time there was not developed so many parts expect headstock and Tailstock.

But during the industrial revolution Metalworking lathe evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid parts. Then inthe servomechanism is applied to control lathe and other machine tools by numeric, Direct numerical control machine.

The Lathe is the most versatile machine tool among all standard of the machine tool. Nowadays the manually controlled machine exists like a CNC machine and even do with the help of feed mechanism the lathe machine operates manually.

A lathe machine is a machine tool that is used to remove metals from a workpiece to give a desired shape and size. Lathe Machines are used in metalworking, woodturning, metal spinning, thermal spraying, glass working, and parts reclamation. The various other operations that you can perform with the help of Lathe Machine can include sanding, cutting, knurling, drilling, and deformation of tools that are employed in creating objects which have symmetry about the axis of rotation.

There are several components of a lathelater on, I discuss the most important Parts of Lathe with their function. It is also known as the father of all standard machine tools.

The function of Lathe is to remove the metal in the form of chips from a piece of work by mounting the same rigidly on a machine spindle and revolving at the required speed and the cutting tool is fed against the work either longitudinally or crosswise to make the work to the required shape and size.

So what are the Parts of a Lathe machine? A lathe machine tool consists of several parts like:. Head Stock is situated at the left side of the lathe bed and it is the house of the driving mechanism and electrical mechanism of a Lathe machine tool. A separate speed change gearbox is placed below headstock to reduce the speed in order to have different feed rates for threading and automatic lateral movement of the carriage.

The feed rod is used for most turning operation and the lead screw is used for thread cutting operation. It is the base of the lathe machine. It is made of single piece casting of Semi-steel Chilled Cast Iron.For general purpose work, the tool used in is a single point tool, but for special operations, multipoint tools may use. In a lathe machine work, different operations require different types of lathe cutting tools, which are as follow.

According to the method of using the lathe cutting tools. Following are the different types of lathe cutting tools:.

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The main function of a rough turning tool is to remove the maximum amount of metal in minimum time that the tool, work, and the machine will permit. The cutting angle is so ground that it can withstand maximum cutting pressure.

Turning tool is used to remove the very small amount of metal. A tool angle is so ground that it can produce a very smooth and accurate surface. Straight turning tools are also used as a chamfering tool when the cutting edges are set at an angle of the chamfer.

A bevelled shoulder may be turned by a straight turning tool having a side cutting edge angle and zero nose radius. A filleted shoulder is turned by a straight turning tool with a nose radius corresponding to the fillet radius of the work. Metric, B. Its cutting edges sharpened to the shape and size of the thread to be cut.

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W threads. The size or cross-section of the cutting edges of the tool depends upon the pitch of the thread. Below figure illustrates an H.

So for machining different screw threads having different pitches separates tools are used to produce accurate threads. The nose of the tool is pointed, flat or rounded according to the shape of the root of the thread. The side clearance of the tool for cutting square thread is of prime importance in order to prevent the tool from interfering or rubbing against the vertical flank of the thread. The cutting edge of the tool is exactly similar to an external thread cutting tool but the front clearance angle is sufficiently increased as in a boring tool.

The tool is a forged type orbit type and held on a boring bar. The point of the tool must be set square with the work. A facing tool removes metal by its side cutting edges. So no top rake in necessary in a facing tool. The figure shows H. The length of the tool is, and mm and the nose radius varies from 0. Grooving tool is similar to a parting-off tool illustrated in the figure. An ordinary lathe turning tool may sever the purpose where a copying attachment is used to reproduce the form of a template.

Flat forming tools are made of two types:. These tools have their cutting edges ground to the shape of the groove, undercut, or thread to be cut. Flat dovetail forming tools have a wider cutting edge corresponding to the shape desired. Dovetail end of the tool is fitted in a special tool holder.Workpiece can be held securely and rigidly on the machine tool between centres or by means of chuck.

To cut the material easily the cutting tool should be harder than the material of workpiece. Arrangements for setting the direction of tool advancement and its rigid holding, are already provided on lathe machine. A standard machine is that which is able to deal with a variety of work and a wide range of operations can be performed on it. A centre lathe is an example of standard lathe because on this machine we can perform the following operations :.

These operations are described below in detail. It is the removal of material from the outside diameter of a cylindrical job to obtain one or more finished diameter.

14 Different Types of Lathe Cutting Tools

Turning operation where the entire length is divided in steps of different diameter but each step individually finished by using plain turning is known as stepped turning. Taper turning is the operation in which the material is removed from the job to produce a conical shape. Plain Turning and Stepped Turning. In plain turning, the workpiece is turned straight throughout the entire length when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis, and the cutting tool is fed along the lathe axis.

The plain or straight turning produces a cylindrical surface after machining. In stepped turning, the workpiece is turned in such a way that throughout the turning length it forms the steps of different diameters.

If the workpiece is mounted on a chuck, care should be taken to centre it accurately with the lathe axis. The trueness of the workpiece held on a chuck is tested by holding a scriber or a dial indicator against the rotating workpiece. Turning tool is clamped on the tool post by keeping its cutting edge approximately at the lathe axis or slightly above it.

Taper Turning. Generally, the following methods are used for taper turning : a By swivelling compound rest b By setting over the tail stock c By taper turning attachment d By forming or broad-nose tool By Swivelling Compound Rest.

This method is used to produce short or steep tapers. We can calculate the swivelled angle of compound rest in respect of lathe axis. It is the machining of the ends of a workpiece to make the ends smooth. Parting Off. This operation involves cutting the work-metal into two parts by using parting off tool. Feed to the cutting tool is given in same manner as in case of facing operation.

It is the process of producing rough surface of embossing diamond shaped pattern on a smooth surface of a cylindrical job. Knurling provides an effective gripping surface on a job to prevent it from slipping when operated by hand. Knurling, as shown in Figure 7. The teeth are cut on the steel rollers in different pattern.

A New Spin on CNC Machining Face Grooves

For knurling operation, the knurling tool is forced with the workpiece which is already arranged in revolving condition. Thread Cutting. In thread cutting operation, there is a certain ratio of motion between the travel of tool and the rotation of the spindle. This ratio is directly effected by the lead screw which is attached to the lathe spindle through gears.

General set up for thread cutting is shown in Figure 7. The ratio between the teeth on stud and lead screw gear can be calculated by the given formula. This operation is also denoted as necking.

grooving operation on lathe machine

Usually, grooves are cut on a cylindrical surface in narrow shape by means of grooving tool. The cutting edge of grooving tool is kept narrow. For making a standard size of hole in a workpiece by means of drill is known as drilling operation.The lathe is a machine toolwhich removes the metal from a piece of work to give the required shape and size.

This is accomplished by holding the work securely and rigidly on the machine and then turning it against cutting tool, which will remove metal from the work in the form of chips. To cut the material properly, the tool should be harder than the material of the work piece. It should be rigidly held on the machine and should be fed or progressed in a definite way relative to the work. There are various types of operations carried out on lathe machine which are described below:.

The work is turned straight when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis, and the tool is fed parallel to the lathe axis. The straight turning produces a cylindrical surface by removing excess metal from the work piece. After facing the ends and drilling the center, the job is carefully mounted between the centers using a lathe dog attached to the work piece. A properly ground right hand turning tool is used for this purpose. Tool is clamped on the tool post with the minimum overhang and is set with its cutting edge approximately at the lathe axis or slightly above it.

For light cuts the tool may be inclined towards the headstock, but for heavy cuts the tool must be inclined towards the tailstock. The automatic feed is engaged to move the carriage to the desired length, then the feed is disengaged and the carriage is brought back to the starting position.

grooving operation on lathe machine

The process is repeated until the job is finally finished. There are two kinds of cuts that can be given onto a work piece:. The rough turning is the process of removal of excess material from the work piece in a minimum time by applying high rate of feed and heavy depth of cut. The roughing cut should be so made that the machine, the tool, and the work piece can bear the load.

The depth of cut for roughing operations in average machine shop work is from 2 to 5mm and the rate of feed is from 0. Rough turning operations are carried out by rough turning tool. The finish turning operation requires high cutting speed, small feed, and a very small depth of cut to generate a smooth surface. A finish turning tool having sharp cutting edge is held securely on the tool post for this purpose.

In finish turning operation, the depth of cut ranges from 0. The cross-feed dial is used to set an accurate depth of cut. After measuring the diameter of rough turned surface, the depth of cut to be given is determined by subtracting the finished diameter from the measured value. The tool is then made to advance by half of the above value by rotating the cross-slide hand-wheel through required number of divisions on the dial. The machine is started and a trial cut is made from the end of the work to 5 or 6 mm by applying hand feed and the finished diameter is checked by a micrometer.

Once the correct diameter is made, the rest is finished by the automatic feed. Facing is the operation of machining the ends of a piece of work to produce a flat surface square with the axis. This is also used to cut the work to the required length.

The operation involves feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the work piece. A properly ground facing tool is mounted in a tool holder in the tool post. A regular turning tool may also be used for facing a large work piece. The cutting edge should be set at the same height as the center of the work piece. The selection of hand-feed or power feed depends upon the length of the cut.

The surface is finished to the size by giving usual roughing and finishing cuts. For roughing, the average value of the cross feed is from 0.


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